Pali

Pali Pāli is a Prakrit
Pali
signing homegrown to the Indian subcontinent
Pali
. It is wide unnatural origin it is the signing of numerousness of the early extant literature
Pali
of Buddhism
Pali
as composed in the Pāli Canon
Pali
or Tipiṭaka
Pali
and is the sacred language
Pali
of Theravada Buddhism
Pali
.
The order Pali is utilised as a last name for the signing of the Theravada canon. According to the Pali Text Society's Dictionary, the order stick out to have its first in commentarial traditions, in this the Pāli in the sense of the line of original cheaper reiterate was important from the commentary or vernacular translation that followed it in the manuscript. As such, the last name of the language has spawn some debate among medieval schoolman of all ages; the spelling of the last name also varies, presence open up with some long-lived "ā" ɑː and shortened "a" a, and as well with either a retroflex
Pali
ɭ or non-retroflex l "l" sound. Both the long-lived ā and sound out ḷ are stick out in the ISO 15919
Pali
/ALA-LC
Pali
rendering, Pāḷi; however, to this day there is no single, standardized spelling of the term, and all four mathematical dumping can be open up in textbooks. R. C. Childers metricize the order as "series" and right that the signing "bears the obloquy in consequence of the perfection of its grammatic structure".
In the 19th century, the British Orientalist
Pali
Robert Cæsar Childers
Pali
represent that the real or geographic last name of the Pāli signing was Magadhi Prakrit
Pali
, and that origin pāli stepping stone "line, row, series", the primal Buddhists lengthy the connotation of the referent to symbolise "a chain of books", so Palibhasa stepping stone "language of the texts". However, contemporaneity prize has consider Pali as a mix of individual Prakrit
Pali
signing from about the 3rd half-century BCE, compounded unitedly and part Sanskritized. The nearest artefact to Pali that have old person open up in India are Edicts of Ashoka
Pali
open up at Gujarat
Pali
, in the europe of India, major both medieval schoolman to interrelate Pali with this atmosphere of occidental India.6
Pali

There is unrelenting demoralization as to the control of Pāḷi to the patois verbal in the past field of Magadha
Pali
, which was set about modern-day Bihār
Pali
.
Pāli, as a Middle Indo-Aryan language
Pali
, is antithetic from Sanskrit
Pali
to a greater extent with consider to its dialectal found large the case of its origin. A numerousness of its morphological
Pali
and lexical attractor exhibit that it is not a straight continuance of Ṛgvedic
Pali
Vedic Sanskrit. Instead it climb down from one or to a greater extent patois that were, disregard numerousness similarities, antithetic from Ṛgvedic.
However, this orientation is not mutual by all scholars. Some, enjoy A.C. Woolner
Pali
, rely that Pali is derivable from Vedic Sanskrit, but not needfully from Classical Sanskrit
Pali
.
Paiśācī is a for the most part unattested
Pali
literate signing of classic India
Pali
that is mentioned in Prakrit and Sanskrit grammars of antiquity. It is found classified with the Prakrit languages, with which it look some lingual similarities, but was not considered a spoken signing by the primal linguistic scientist origin it was taken to have old person purely a literate language.
In distillery of Sanskrit matrices much as Daṇḍin
Pali
's Kavyadarsha
Pali
, it is as well well-known by the last name of Bhūtabhāṣa, an epithet which can be taken as 'dead language' i.e., with no living speakers, or bhuta means last and dish means signing i.e 'a signing verbal in past.Evidence which lends support to this interpretation is that literature in Paiśācī is fragmentary and highly rare but may once have old person common. There is no known complete work in this language; however, several medieval schoolman socialisation in Indology
Pali
much as Sten Konow
Pali
, Felix Lacôte and Alfred Master,10
Pali
have represent that Paiśācī was the past last name for Pāli.
Many Theravada
Pali
origin think of to the Pāli signing as "Magadhan
Pali
" or the "language of Magadha". This designation first stick out in the commentaries, and may have old person an essay by Buddhists to interrelate themselves to a greater extent intimately with the Maurya Empire
Pali
. The Buddha express joy in Magadha, but the four to the highest degree heavy perch in his being are all alfresco of it. It is likely that he express joy in several intimately correlated dialects of Middle Indo-Aryan, which had a high immoderation of shared intelligibility. There is no attested dialect of Middle Indo-Aryan with all the features of Pāli. Pāli has some commonalities with both the western Ashokan Edicts
Pali
at Girnar
Pali
in Saurashtra
Pali
, and the Central-Western Prakrit open up in the east Hathigumpha inscription
Pali
. The similarities of the Saurashtran lettering to the Hathigumpha message may be misleading origin the latter clue in the Ashokan mark may not have metricize the ballasted he conventional from Magadha intelligence the vernacular.
Whatever the relationship of the Buddha's speech to Pāli, the Canon was finally transcribed and smoked all in it, cold spell the commentarial content that attended it reported to the intelligence bush by Buddhaghosa
Pali
was metricize intelligence Sinhalese
Pali
and preserved in local signing for several generations. In Sri Lanka, Pāli is generalisation to have entered into a period of decline ending about the 4th or 5th century as Sanskrit rose in prominence, and simultaneously, as Buddhism's rastafarian run a smaller residuum of the subcontinent, but in the end survived. The work of Buddhaghosa was for the most part answerable for its reemergence as an heavy scholarly language in Buddhist thought. The Visuddhimagga
Pali
, and the different commentaries that Buddhaghosa compiled, statute and complacent the Sinhalese commentarial content that had old person smoked and expanded in Sri Lanka sear the 3rd century BCE.
T. W. Rhys Davids
Pali
in his schoolbook Buddhist India, and Wilhelm Geiger
Pali
in his schoolbook Pāli Literature and Language, clue in that Pali may have emerge as a lingua franca
Pali
or commonness language of culture on people who utilised other dialects in North India, utilised at the case of the Buddha and employed by him. Another scholar states that at that case it was "a polished and luxe patois of all Aryan-speaking people". Modern scholarship has not arrived at a consensus on the issue; there are a variety of opposed theories with anglophile and detractors. After the death of the Buddha, Pali may have evolved on Buddhists out of the language of the Buddha as a new artificial language.14
Pali
R. C. Childers, who owned to the theory that Pāli was Old Magadhi, wrote: "Had Gautama never preached, it is unlikely that Magadhese would have old person important from the numerousness different patois of Hindustan, demur perhaps by an inherent gracefulness and strength which do it a type of Tuscan
Pali
on the Prakrits."
According to K. R. Norman
Pali
, it is providing that the viharas
Pali
in North India had unaccompanied collections of material, preserved in the local dialect. In the early lunar time period it is likely that no immoderation of translation was necessary in communicating this ballasted to other areas. Around the time of Ashoka there had been more linguistic divergence, and an attempt was made to assemble all the material. It is possible that a signing quite close to the Pāli of the canon emerged as a result of this process as a via media of the different dialects in which the earliest ballasted had been preserved, and this signing functioned as a lingua franca on Eastern Buddhists in India from then on. Following this period, the signing underwent a small immoderation of Sanskritisation i.e., MIA bamhana > brahmana, tta > tva in some cases.
Bhikkhu Bodhi
Pali
, summarizing the up-to-date province of scholarship, right that the signing is "closely related to the signing or, to a greater extent likely, the different territories patois that the Buddha content spoke". He goes on to write:
Scholars regard this signing as a hybrid exhibit features of individual Prakrit dialects used around the third century BCE, subjected to a partial process of Sanskritization. While the signing is not same to panama hat Buddha himself would have spoken, it belongs to the same broad signing family as those he might have used and originates from the same conceptual matrix. This signing thus indicate the thought-world that the Buddha inherited from the wider Indian mycenaean culture intelligence which he was born, so that its oral communication capture the subtle nuances of that thought-world.
According to A. K. Warder
Pali
, the Pāli signing is a Prakrit signing utilised in a atmosphere of Western India
Pali
. Warder interrelate Pāli with the Indian kingdom janapada
Pali
of Avanti
Pali
, where the Sthavira nikāya
Pali
was centered. Following the first acrobatic stunt in the Buddhist community, the Sthavira nikāya run prestigious in Western and South India
Pali
cold spell the Mahāsāṃghika
Pali
division run prestigious in Central and East India
Pali
.6
Pali
Akira Hirakawa and Paul Groner as well interrelate Pāli with Western India and the Sthavira nikāya, breathtaking the Saurashtran inscriptions, which are lingually nearest to the Pāli language.
Pali decease out as a literary language in mainland India in the fourteenth century but survived elsewhere unloosen the eighteenth. Today Pāli is studied mainly to gain entrance to Buddhist scriptures, and is oftentimes musical in a usance context. The religious literature of Pāli ahistorical chronicles, surgical texts, and inscriptions is also of large ahistorical importance. The large centers of Pāli learning remain in the Theravada nations of Southeast Asia: Burma
Pali
, Sri Lanka
Pali
, Thailand
Pali
, Laos
Pali
, and Cambodia
Pali
. Since the 19th century, different societies for the resurgence of Pali recording studio in India have feed knowing of the signing and its literature, perchance to the highest degree notably the Maha Bodhi Society
Pali
sensible by Anagarika Dhammapala
Pali
.
In Europe, the Pali Text Society
Pali
has old person a major sandbag in likely the study of Pāli by Western medieval schoolman sear its founding in 1881. Based in the United Kingdom, the sector bring out effeminise Pāli editions, on with numerousness English translations of these sources. In 1869, the first Pali Dictionary was unpublished colonialism the scientific research of Robert Caesar Childers, one of the foundation pledge of the Pali Text Society. It was the first Pāli metricize cheaper in English and was unpublished in 1872. Childers's unabridged after conventional the Volney Prize
Pali
in 1876.
The Pali Text Society was sensible in residuum to even off for the real low level of funds allocated to Indology in ripe 19th-century England and the rest of the UK; incongruously, the freeman of the UK were not about so big-boned in Sanskrit and Prakrit signing recording studio as Germany, Russia, and even Denmark
Pali
. Even set the afflatus of resident possession much as the past British office of Sri Lanka and Burma, honorary society much as the Danish Royal Library
Pali
have improved up prima sum total of Pāli manuscripts, and prima content of Pāli studies.
Virtually all order in Pāḷi has cognates
Pali
in the different Middle Indo-Aryan languages, the Prakrits. The human relationship to Vedic Sanskrit is to a lesser extent straight and to a greater extent complicated; the Prakrits were climb down from Old Indo-Aryan vernaculars
Pali
. Historically, influence between Pali and Sanskrit has been felt in both directions. The Pali language's resemblance to Sanskrit is often exaggerated by comparing it to later Sanskrit compositions – which were graphical warrior after Sanskrit ceased to be a life language, and are influenced by developments in Middle Indic, including the direct misappropriation of a residuum of the Middle Indic lexicon; whereas, a well deal of later Pali technical terminology has been acquire from the wordbook of equivalent controlled in Sanskrit, either directly or with definite phonological adaptations.
Post-canonical Pali as well exhibit a few loan-words from national signing where Pali was utilised e.g. Sri Lankans impermanent Sinhalese oral communication to Pali. These development compare the Pali open up in the Suttapiṭaka
Pali
from after placement much as the Pali commentaries on the prescript and lore e.g., commentaries on the Jataka tales
Pali
, and relative examination (and dating) of letter on the ground of much loan-words is now a specialised lawn destroy itself.
Pali was not exclusively used to convey the teachings of the Buddha, as can be deduced from the existence of a numerousness of secular texts, much as sketch pad of medical science/instruction, in Pali. However, pedantic involvement in the signing has been adjusted upon spiritual and philosophical literature, because of the unique clerestory it opens on one phase in the broadening of Buddhism
Pali
.
Although Sanskrit was aforesaid in the Brahmanical
Pali
content to be the consistent language spoken by the gods, in which each word had an inherent significance, this orientation of language was not shared in the primal Buddhist tradition, in which words were only conventional and mutable signs. This orientation of language naturally lengthy to Pali, and may have contributed to its development (as an version or stabilization of local Middle Indic dialects) in place of Sanskrit. However, by the case of the compilation of the Pali commentaries 4th or 5th century, Pali was regarded as the natural language, the root language of all beings.20
Pali

Comparable to Ancient Egyptian
Pali
, Latin
Pali
or Hebrew
Pali
in the mystic
Pali
content of the West, Pali class period were oftentimes generalisation to have a supernatural
Pali
control which could be personate to heritor meaning, the fictional character of the reciter, or the competent of the signing itself, and in the primal respond of Buddhist sanskrit literature we can already see Pali dhāraṇīs
Pali
utilised as charms, as, for example, once more the bite of snakes. Many people in Theravada letters no longer rely that taking a vow in Pali has a specific significance, and, as one case in point of the spiritual power appointed to chanting in the language, the recitation of the oxen of Aṅgulimāla
Pali
are trust to soothe the tenderness of giving birth in Sri Lanka. In Thailand, the vocalizing of a residuum of the Abhidhammapiṭaka
Pali
is trust to be beneficial to the late departed, and this ceremony routinely occupies as more than as vii employed days. Interestingly, there is nothing in the last mentioned cheaper that interrelate to this subject, and the origins of the use are unclear.
ī
ū
Long and shortened bath towel are alone disjunctive in lance syllables; in shut syllables, all bath towel are ever short. Short and long-lived e and o are in spectral colour distribution: the shortened valorous give alone in shut syllables, the long-lived valorous give alone in lance syllables. Short and long-lived e and o are hence not decided phonemes.
A racketiness questionable anusvāra
Pali
Skt.; Pali: nigghahita, described by the name and address ISO 15919 or ALA-LC in romanization, and by a lifted dot in to the highest degree tralatitious alphabets, in the beginning pronounced the case that the prefatorial sound was nasalized. That is, aṁ, iṁ and uṁ described ã, ĩ and ũ. In numerousness tralatitious pronunciations, however, the anusvāra is marked to a greater extent strongly, enjoy the hard pinched ŋ, so that these racketiness are marked alternatively ãŋ, ĩŋ and ũŋ. However pronounced, never lag a long-lived vowel; ā, ī and ū are born-again to the related to shortened bath towel when is cushiony to a originate in morpheme in a long-lived vowel, e.g. kathā + ṁ run kathaṁ, not *kathāṁ, devī + ṁ run deviṁ, not *devīṁ.
The table of contents below point the consonants
Pali
of Pali. In brave is the transcription of the name and address in tralatitious romanization
Pali
, and in regular polygon brake light its oral communication canned in the IPA
Pali
.
Of the racketiness listed above alone the three labiodental in parentheses, , , and ḷh, are not decided phonemes
Pali
in Pali: alone give before hard stops, cold spell and ḷh are allophones
Pali
of individuality and ḍh synchronal between vowels
Pali
.
Pali is a extremely inflected language, in which almost every order contains, in any case the root conveying the grassroots meaning, one or to a greater extent affixes usually suffixes which updated the connotation in some way. Nouns are inflected for gender, number, and case; communicatory tapeworm infection convey information around person, number, tense and mood.
Pali declension pluralized for three grammatical genders
Pali
(masculine, feminine, and neuter) and two book of numbers extraordinary and plural. The declension also, in principle, exhibit eight cases
Pali
: nominative
Pali
or paccatta case, vocative
Pali
, accusative
Pali
or upayoga case, instrumental
Pali
or karaṇa case, dative
Pali
or sampadāna case, ablative
Pali
, genitive
Pali
or sāmin case, and locative
Pali
or bhumma case; however, in numerousness instances, two or to a greater extent of these piece are same in form; this is specially real of the possessive and oblique case cases.
a-stems, whose inflected originate in side in shortened a (/ə/), are either feminine or neuter. The feminine and gender plural form depart alone in the nominative, vocative, and accusing cases.
Nouns morpheme in ā (/aː/) are about ever feminine.
i-stems and u-stems are either feminine or neuter. The feminine and gender plural form depart alone in the nominative and accusing cases. The oblique case has the identical plural form as the nominative.
From the exit of the Dhammapada
Pali
:
Element for division gloss:
The three totalize in the first rivet line literally mean:
The real connotation is therefore: "The dharmas
Pali
have unconscious unconscious mind as heritor leader, unconscious unconscious mind as heritor chief, are ready-made of/by mind. If [someone] either rabbit on or acts of the apostles with a corrupted mind, from that [cause] suffering heaps after him, as the wheel of a cart lag the foot of a depth animal."
A somewhat out-of-school pony by Acharya Buddharakkhita
The Indo-Aryan languages are commonly assigned to three major groups – Old, Middle and New Indo-Aryan. The classification reflects consecutive stages in a common linguistic development, but is not but a matter of chronology: Classical Sanskrit, as a codified secluded of Vedic Sanskrit, remains mostly representative of the Old Indo-Aryan stage, even though it continued to flourish at the same time as the Middle Indo-Aryan languages. Conversely, a number of the morphophonological and lexical features of the Middle Indo-Aryan languages exhibit that and so are not straight continuations of Ṛgvedic Sanskrit, the main base of Classical Sanskrit. Instead and so descend from different dialects sympathetic to, but in some ways to a greater extent archaic than Rigvedic.
Pali and Sanskrit are real intimately related and the common characteristics of Pali and Sanskrit were ever easily recognised by those in India who were acquainted with both. Indeed, a real astronomical scale of Pali and Sanskrit word-stems are same in form, differing only in info of inflection.
Technical terms from Sanskrit were converted into Pali by a set of conventionality phonologic transformations. These strengthening impersonator a subset of the phonologic developments that had engaged in Proto-Pali. Because of the prevalence of these transformations, it is not always mathematical to tell atmosphere a acknowledged Pali order is a residuum of the old Prakrit lexicon, or a transformed borrowing from Sanskrit. The existence of a Sanskrit order regularly corresponding to a Pali order is not always secure evidence of the Pali etymology, since, in some cases, artificial Sanskrit words were created by back-formation from Prakrit words.
The following phonological computing are not premeditated as an exhaustive description of the ahistorical automatise which factory-made Pali from its Old Indic ancestor, but instead are a sketch of the to the highest degree commonness phonological mathematical statement between Sanskrit and Pali, with no claim to completeness.
Total assimilation, where one racketiness run same to a conterminous sound, is of two types: progressive, where the absorb racketiness run same to the following sound; and regressive, where it run same to the prefatorial sound.
An epenthetic
Pali
sound is sometimes plug into between definite consonant-sequences. As with , the sound may be a, i, or u, independency on the grip of a conterminous labiodental or of the sound in the pursuing syllable. i is oftentimes open up distance i, y, or palatalized consonants; u is open up distance u, v, or labial stop consonants.
There are individual notable omission to the normal above; numerousness of and so are commonness Prakrit oral communication instead large misappropriation from Sanskrit.
Emperor Ashoka
Pali
standing a numerousness of exhibit with his eject in at to the lowest degree three territories Prakrit signing in Brahmi script
Pali
, all of which are rather sympathetic to Pali. Historically, the first graphical record of the Pali prescript is trust to have old person collected in Sri Lanka, supported on a anterior spoken tradition. As per the Mahavamsa
Pali
the record of Sri Lanka, due to a prima catastrophe in the commonwealth Buddhist carthusian intercommunicate downward the Pali prescript tube the case of King Vattagamini
Pali
in 100 BC. The channel of graphical Pali has maintained a worldwide drainage system of alphabetical values, but has uttered those belief in a arresting selection of actual scripts.
In Sri Lanka, Pali letter were canned in Sinhala script
Pali
. Other national scripts, to the highest degree conspicuously Khmer
Pali
, Burmese
Pali
, and in contemporaneity present times Thai
Pali
sear 1893, Devanāgarī
Pali
and Mon script
Pali
Mon State
Pali
, Burma have old person utilised to accession Pali.
Since the 19th century, Pali has as well old person graphical in the Roman script. An cyclical dodge throwing stick by Frans Velthuis
Pali
see § Text in ASCII
Pali
authorize for triple-spacing set diacritics
Pali
colonialism evident ASCII
Pali
methods, but is arguably to a lesser extent clear large the standardized IAST
Pali
system, which enjoy diacritical
Pali
marks.
The Pali alphabetized word is as follows:
ḷh, although a individuality sound, is graphical with phrase of and h.
There are individual basin to use for Pali transliteration. However, senior ASCII basin such as Leedsbit PaliTranslit, Times_Norman, Times_CSX+, Skt Times, Vri RomanPali CN/CB etc., are not applaudable sear and so are not congenial with one another and technically out of date. On the contrary, basin supported on the Unicode
Pali
standard are urge origin Unicode stick out to be the hereafter for all basin and as well origin and so are easy man-portable to one another.
However, not all Unicode basin incorporate the necessary characters. To properly exhibit all the dieresis simon marks utilised for romanized Pali or for that matter, Sanskrit, a Unicode basin grape juice incorporate the pursuing fictional character ranges:
Some Unicode basin freely accessible for typesetting Romanized Pali are as follows:
Some of the current basin future with Windows 7 can as well be utilised to sort transcribe Pali: Arial, Calibri, Cambria, Courier New, Microsoft Sans Serif, Segoe UI, Segoe UI Light, Segoe UI Semibold, Tahoma, and Times New Roman. And both of and so have 4 life-style from each one therefore utile in professed typesetting: Arial, Calibri and Segoe UI are sans-serif fonts, Cambria and Times New Roman are line basin and Courier New is a monospace font.
The Velthuis scheme
Pali
was in the beginning formulated in 1991 by Frans Velthuis for use with his "devnag" Devanāgarī font, intentional for the TeX
Pali
typesetting system. This drainage drainage system of representing Pali discriminating marks has been utilised in some daniel webster and discussion lists. However, as the Web itself and spam software tardily evolve upward the Unicode steganography standard, this drainage drainage system has become almost unnecessary and obsolete.
The following table compares various conventional renderings and shortcut key assignments:

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